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 War Diary for Friday, 1 September 1939

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 September 1939
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Poland
Wehrmacht launches blitzkrieg offensive
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939

Kriegsmarine battleship Schleswig-Holstein bombards Polish Westerplatte fortress with first shots of the campaign
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Naval operations

German naval assault company unsuccessfully attacks Polish Westerplatte fortress
   Polish campaign, 1939

Kesselring's Luftflotte 1 provides air support to Bock's German Army Group North
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Air operations in the Polish campaign, 1939
   Field Marshal Fedor von Bock
   Field Marshal Albert Kesselring

Kuchler's 3rd Army of German Army Group North attacks from East Prussia southward toward Warsaw against Polish Army Modlin
   Polish campaign, 1939

Kluge's 4th Army of German Army Group North attacks eastward into the Polish corridor against Polish Army Pomorze
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Field Marshal Gunther von Kluge

Lohr's Luftflotte 4 provides air support to Rundstedt's German Army Group South
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Air operations in the Polish campaign, 1939
   Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt

Blaskowitz's 8th Army of German Army Group South attacks northeast towards Lodz against Polish Army Poznan and Army Lodz
   Polish campaign, 1939
   General Johannes Blaskowitz

Reichenau's 10th Army of German Army Group South attacks eastward towards Piotrkow against Polish Army Lodz
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Field Marshal Walther Reichenau

List's 14th Army of German Army Group South attacks eastward from Germany and Slovakia toward Krakow against Polish Army Krakow and Army Karpaty
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Field Marshal Siegmund Wilhelm Walther List

SS Einsatzgruppen following behind German ground forces begin actions against Polish intelligentsia and Jews
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Poland: The Holocaust
   Einsatzgruppen

Luftwaffe raids on Warsaw, Krakow, approximately thirty Polish airfields, and many other targets, including direct support for ground troops
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Air operations

Polish torpedo boat Mazur sunk by Luftwaffe aircraft
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Naval operations
   Air operations in the Polish campaign, 1939

Marshal Rydz-Smigly assumes command of all Polish forces
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Marshal Edward Rydz-Smigly

Polish government invokes terms of Anglo-French guarantees
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy

Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck summons British and French ambassadors to ask when their countries will enter the war
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Josef Beck

Beck angrily refuses French ambassador's suggestion -- as requested by Foreign Minister Bonnet -- that Poland take advantage of Italian mediation and peace conference
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Josef Beck
   Georges Bonnet

Danzig
Nazis attack armed workers at the Polish post office in the city
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Danzig

The city's Nazi gauleiter declares anschluss with Germany
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Danzig

Germany
Leeb's German Army Group C with Liebmann's 5th Army, Wiztleben's 1st Army, and Dollmann's 7th Army, supported by Felmy's Luftflotte 2, guards the western frontier
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe

Hitler speech at the Reichstag claiming Polish troops opened fire on Germany, and demanding return of Danzig and destruction of Polish armed forces, because Poland has proved itself incapable of existence
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Adolf Hitler

Hitler dispatches two messages to Mussolini regarding outbreak of war
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Adolf Hitler
   Benito Mussolini

Hitler tells Swedish mediator Birger Dahlerus he remains willing to talk with London
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Adolf Hitler

Government implements evening curfew for all Jewish residents
   Germany: Home front and occupation
   Germany: The Holocaust

Second 'Uranium Club' founded under government auspices for research into atomic weapons, including Werner Heisenberg
   Germany: Atomic weapons
   Werner Heisenberg

France
French government issues ultimatum for German withdrawal from Poland
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy

Mobilization of French armed forces
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy

Foreign Minister Bonnet notifies Italian ambassador that Paris is willing to accept Mussolini's previous offer of Italian mediation and peace conference
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Benito Mussolini
   Georges Bonnet

United Kingdom
British government issues ultimatum for German withdrawal from Poland
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy

Lord Halifax notifies Mussolini that London can no longer accept previous offer of Italian mediation and peace conference
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Benito Mussolini
   Lord Halifax

Mobilization of British armed forces
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy

General Alan Brooke takes command of 2nd Corps
   United Kingdom: Home Defenses
   Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke

Polish destroyers Blyskawica, Burza, and Grom -- having departed Poland on 30 August -- arrive Scotland
   Naval operations in Northwest European waters, 1939-1944
   Polish campaign, 1939: Naval operations

Italy
French and British ambassadors call on Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano and urge him to press forward with mediation and peace conference
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   Count Galeazzo Ciano

Egypt
Colin Gubbins departs Alexandria en route to join British military mission to Poland as Adrian Carton de Wiart's chief of staff
   Anglo-Polish relations
   General Adrian Carton de Wiart
   General Colin M. Gubbins

Atlantic Ocean
Twenty-one U-boats on station in North Sea and North Atlantic
   The U-Boat war, 1939-1945

Kriegsmarine pocket battleship Deutschland at sea
   Naval operations in the North Atlantic

German liner Bremen, returning from New York, steers for Germany
   Naval operations in the North Atlantic
   Axis blockade runners and supply ships

South Atlantic
Kriegsmarine pocket battleship Graf Spee at sea
   Naval operations in the South Atlantic
   Admiral Graf Spee

United States
President Roosevelt asks combatants to abide by restrictions on aerial bombing against civilians
   International relations: Outbreak of war in Europe
   Polish campaign, 1939: Politics and diplomacy
   United States: International relations
   Franklin Delano Roosevelt

General George C. Marshall appointed Chief of Staff of US Army
   Joint Chiefs of Staff
   General George C. Marshall

Manchukuo
General Zhukov's victorious Soviet forces halt advance around Nomonhan on disputed border between Mongolia and Manchukuo, facing remnants of Japanese 6th Army
   Russo-Japanese Incident, 1939
   Marshal Georgi Zhukov

Japanese Kwantung Army rushing reinforcements toward Nomonhan with intention of opening new offensive along disputed border between Mongolia and Manchukuo
   Russo-Japanese Incident, 1939


Dates are local to the time zone in which the event occurred, but discrepancies and inconsistencies abound throughout the sources, especially when events ocurred shortly before or after midnight.

Entries on file for this date: 43
Total entries on file: 61,992
Updated: 22:06 Pacific Time on 19 August 2014

Help improve our War Diary
Recommend an addition, correction, or clarification for this date.

Principal sources for this War Diary
Alden. U.S. Submarine Attacks during World War II
Argyle. Chronology of World War II
Brown. Warship Losses of World War Two
Browning. US Merchant Vessel Casualties of World War II
Carter and Mueller. Combat Chronology, 1941-1945
Cressman. The Official Chronology of the US Navy in World War II
Edelheit and Edelheit. A World in Turmoil
Foreman. Fighter Command War Diaries (five volumes)
Goralski. World War II Almanac, 1931-1945
Hague. The Allied Convoy System
Hammel. Air War Europa
Hammel. Air War Pacific
Hauner. Hitler: A Chronology of His Life and Time
Kay. Chronology: New Zealand in the War, 1939-1946
Middlebrook and Everitt. Bomber Command War Diaries
Niestle. German U-Boat Losses during World War II
Rohwer. Allied Submarine Attacks of World War Two
Rohwer. Axis Submarine Successes of World War Two
Rohwer. Chronology of the War at Sea
Salmaggi and Pallavisini. 2194 Days of War
Sommerville. World War II Day by Day
Swain. A Chronology of Australian Armed Forces at War, 1939-45
Taylor. Barbarossa to Berlin (two volumes)
Williams. Chronology, 1941-1945
Young. Britain's Sea War

Various other Chronology volumes also served as sources.

Many additional volumes were consulted for specific topics.
 

 

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6:35 on 1 September 2014